Qualitative research for development – A guide for practitioners

Published: 2015
Author: Morten Skovdal and Flora Cornish, Save the Children Fund

Free download until 28 February 2017!

http://dx.doi.org/10.3362/9781780448534

Thereafter contact Lucy@childprotectionforum.org

Qualitative research has much to offer to the practical work of humanitarian and development organizations. Growing recognition of the potential for qualitative research to enhance programme impact is putting pressure on development practitioners to adapt a ‘research approach’ in their monitoring, evaluation, accountability, and learning work. This introductory chapter starts off by outlining some of the ways in which qualitative research can be used to improve the impact, quality, and accountability of development projects and programmes. It will then introduce some basic principles of qualitative research and illustrate some of the ways in which qualitative research can be incorporated into various stages of the programme cycle.

Parenting, Family Care and Adolescence in East and Southern Africa: An evidence-focused literature review

Published: 2016
Author: Rachel Bray and Andrew Dawes, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

Based on an evidence-focused literature review, this paper examines existing knowledge on raising adolescents in east and southern African countries, including Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

Country selection was based on the availability of relevant literature and data. The vast majority of research on parenting and adolescent development is based in studies from the global north. This research sought to deepen understandings of family life, care practices and support networks in the east and southern African region so as to inform policy and interventions that seek to improve adolescent-family relations and reduce risk behaviours. Analysis of the regional literature prompts a reconsideration of conventional understandings of parenting and of support focused on adolescence. An evidence-informed model for understanding the ecology of adolescent-parent relationships in the cultural and economic contexts of the region is provided. In addition, a framework for exploring contextually relevant dimensions of parenting through research and practice is offered.

A foot in the door – a report on the Child Community Care study evaluating the effect of CBO support on child wellbeing in HIV affected communities

Published: 2016
Author: UCL and Stellenbosch University

In 2009, King and colleagues reviewed literature that examined the overall effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve the psychosocial wellbeing of children affected by HIV and AIDS.

Although they did find a number of studies that have looked at interventions, they did not identify a single study that adequately evaluated interventions. Instead it was found that most of the literature gave descriptive reports of the support programs. With limited rigorous evaluative research it is difficult to conclude with certainty whether the psychosocial wellbeing of children affected by HIV and AIDS can be improved by an intervention.

The study set out to get a more accurate understanding of if and how psychosocial interventions are effective. It collected data from three countries in Southern Africa – South Africa, Malawi and Zambia.

Community engagement to strengthen social cohesion and child protection in Chad and Burundi – “Bottom Up” participatory monitoring, planning and action

Published: July 2016
Author: International Institute for Child Rights and Development (IICRD), Dr. Philip Cook, Michele Cook, Natasha Blanchet Cohen, Armel Oguniyi & Jean Sewanou

The final report on” Community engagement to strengthen social cohesion and child protection in Chad and Burundi: “Bottom Up” participatory monitoring, planning and action. July 20th 2016.

Compiled by:
International Institute for Child Rights and Development (IICRD), Dr. Philip Cook, Michele Cook, Natasha Blanchet Cohen, Armel Oguniyi & Jean Sewanou

Funded by:
UNICEF’s Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme (PBEA), Learning for Peace

Request for Consultancy Applications

Published: 22 September 2016
Author: Interagency Learning Initiative on Community Based Child Protection Mechanisms and Child Protection Systems

Building the evidence base on effective models of community-led child protection and bottom-up child protection systems strengthening – developing case studies of effective practice in Uganda and Tanzania

Date of issue: 21 September 2016
Submission deadline 14 October 2016
Duration of assignment: 6 months on a part-time basis (estimated 53 consultancy
days)
Expected start date: 1 January 2017

What are the most effective early response strategies and interventions to assess and address the immediate needs of children outside of family care?

Published: 2012
Author: Neil Boothby, Mike Wessells, John Williamson,, Gillian Huebner, Kelly Canter, Eduardo Garcia Rolland, Vesna Kutlesic, Farah Bader, Lena Diaw, Maya Levine, Anita Malley, Kathleen Michels, Sonali Patel, Tanya Rasa, Fred Ssewamala, Vicki Walker

A systematic review of evidence of effective early response strategies for children outside of family care.

Worse than the war’: An ethnographic study of the impact of the Ebola crisis on life, sex, teenage pregnancy, and a community-driven Intervention in rural Sierra Leone

Published: 2016
Author: Kostelny, K., Lamin, D., Manyeh, M., Ondoro, K., Stark, L., Lilley, S., & Wessells, M.

The Ebola crisis in Sierra Leone disrupted the Interagency Learning Initiative’s action research on strengthening community-based child protection mechanisms. In response, ethnographic research was conducted to investigate the wider effects of the Ebola crisis as well as the specific effects on the community led intervention and problems related to teenage pregnancy.

Presentation by James Kaboggoza – Child Protection Systems in Uganda

Published: August 2016
Author: James Kobogozza

An overview of a recent mapping of child protection systems in Uganda

Bottom-up approaches to strengthening child protection systems: Placing children, families, and communities at the center

Published: 2015
Author: Mike Wessells

Efforts to strengthen national child protection systems have frequently taken a top-down approach of imposing formal, government-managed services. Such expert-driven approaches are often characterized by low use of formal services and the misalignment of the nonformal and formal aspects of the child protection system. This article examines an alternative approach of community-driven, bottom-up work that enables non formal–formal collaboration and alignment, greater use of formal services, internally driven social change, and high levels of community ownership.

From the journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Mbinu za kuimarisha mifumo ya ulinzi wa mtoto kuanzia chini kwenda juu mbinu na: Kuangazia watoto, familia na jamii

Published: 2015
Author: Mike Wessells

KiSwahili version of “Bottom-up approaches to strengthening child protection systems: Placing children, families, and communities at the center.”

Presentation by Patrick Onyango – Kampala workshop, 17-18 August, 2016

Published: August 2016
Author: Patrick Onyango

Girl mothers in armed forces and groups and their children in Northern Uganda, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Participatory Action Research to assess and improve their situations.

PAR UNICEF PP presentation Girl Mothers Findings May 2010

Presentation by Eddy Walakira – Kampala workshop, 17-18 August, 2016

Published: August 2016
Author: Eddy Walakira

This presentation looks at the results of a War Child Holland initiative in Northern Uganda around prevention of violence against children in a post war setting.

Presentation by Mike Wessells – Kampala workshop, 17-18 August 2016

Published: August 2016
Author: Mike Wessells

Mike Wessells’ presentation at the Kampala workshop 17-18 August 2016 where he discusses questions about community driven child protection which keep him awake at night.

Study on the issues and risks for child protection in the Segou region in Mali

Published: 2014
Author: Frédérique Boursin-Balkouma - Sociologue - Spécialiste en protection de l’enfant, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Nouhoun Sidibé - Enseignant – Chercheur - Spécialiste en Education, ISFRA, Bamako, Mali

Through a participative diagnostic, a study sponsored by the Terre des hommes NGO in the health districts of Markala and Macina aimed at identifying the most common risks for child protection as well as existing endogenous protection practices.

By endogenous protection practices, we mean collective or individual practices that members of the community (families, children, leaders, groups, etc.) develop on their own initiative in order to prevent or reduce the risks for children facing potential dangers.

The study, carried out in the 10 towns in the health regions of Macina and Markala, allowed us to identify the main risks and issues in child protection, and in particular to understand the abilities and the resources in these communities for dealing with them.

In spite of the restricted scale of the study, the results contribute to our understanding of the rural communities and their perceptions concerning child protection. The study was carried out relatively soon after the food and security crisis in Mali. Because of this it provides information about how the specific context affected children’s rights in the two districts.

Etude sur les problématiques et les risques de protection de l’enfance – Etude de cas dans la région de Segou, Mali

Published: 2014
Author: Frédérique Boursin-Balkouma - Sociologue - Spécialiste en protection de l’enfant, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Nouhoun Sidibé - Enseignant – Chercheur - Spécialiste en Education, ISFRA, Bamako, Mali

A travers un diagnostic participatif, l’étude commanditée par l’ONG Terre des hommes dans les districts sanitaires de Markala et Macina avait pour objectif d’identifier les problématiques et les risques de protection de l’enfance les plus répandus ; ainsi que de découvrir les pratiques endogènes de protection (PEP) existantes.

Par pratiques endogènes de protection, on entend les pratiques, collectives ou individuelles, que les acteurs au niveau communautaire (familles, enfants, leaders, groupes, etc.) développent de leur propre initiative afin de prévenir ou de réduire les risques pour les enfants face aux dangers potentiels.

L’étude menée à l’échelle des dix localités des aires de santé de Macina et de Markala a permis d’identifier les principaux risques et problématiques de protection pour les enfants, mais surtout d’appréhender la connaissance, les capacités et les ressources des communautés pour les prendre en charge.

Malgré l’échelle restreinte de l’étude, les résultats de l’étude contribuent à la compréhension des communautés rurales et à leurs perceptions en matière de protection de l’enfance. L’étude a été menée relativement vite après la crise alimentaire et sécuritaire au Mali. Ainsi, elle fournit également des informations sur la manière dont ce contexte spécifique a pu affecter les droits de l’enfant dans les deux districts.

Summary of studies undertaken on community based child protection mechanisms 2009-2014

Published: June 2014
Author: Community Child Protection Exchange

A short round up of studies undertaken since the publication of the 2009 review “What are we learning about community based child protection mechanisms?” All the studies are hyperlinked.

Presentation: Puff adders, taxi lords and budgets from hell – an A-Z of research disasters

Published: March 2014
Author: Dr. Lucie Cluver

Dr Lucie Cluver’s presentation from the webinar “Research in a shoestring” 17th March 2014

National Child Protection Systems in the east Asia and Pacific region – a review and analysis of mappings and assessments

Published: 2014
Author: ECPAT International, Plan International, Save the Children, UNICEF and World Vision - ECPAT International, Bangkok

A review of mappings and assessments of the child protection system in 14 countries was commissioned by the Inter-Agency Steering Committee (IASC), a subcommittee of the East Asia and Pacific Child Protection Working Group.

This report presents the findings of that review. The countries consist of Cambodia, Fiji, Indonesia, Kiribati, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Vietnam. There are a variety of ways that these can be interpreted and applied.

There appears to be growing awareness of and demand for a child protection system that works in harmony with the cultural and social contexts in which they operate. Increasingly, there is an understanding of the role that culture has in determining how and why a system functions as it does and ultimately the effect it has on the protection outcomes for children.

In many countries with few resources, it is imperative to draw upon positive cultural assets, including protective family and community practices, such as kinship care and traditional mediation processes.

An Overview of the Community Driven Intervention To Reduce Teenage Pregnancy in Sierra Leone

Published: 2014
Author: Mike Wessells, David Lamin, & Marie Manyeh

The Interagency Learning Initiative has cultivated a process of community-driven action that addresses needs of vulnerable children in Bombali and Moyamba Districts of Sierra Leone through linkages and partnership between rural communities and the formal health and child protection systems.

The initial stage was ethnographic research that enabled learning about local views of childhood, harms to children, what happens when the harms occur, and linkages with the formal system. The research took place in a cluster of three villages from a single Chiefdom in each of the two districts.

The ethnographic findings were shared back with each cluster of communities, who validated the findings and reflected on their own on what they should do to address the problems. In important respects, these reflections set the stage for the next phase – the action research phase.

Summary: Learning about children in urban slums

Published: March 2014
Author: Principal Investigator, Mike Wessells, Columbia Group for Children in Adversity

A rapid ethnographic study in two urban slums in Mombasa, Kenya, of community-based child protection mechanisms and their links with the national child protection systems.

An overview of the results of this study. Four pages.

Full Report: Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms in Kilifi, Kenya: A Rapid Ethnographic Study in Two Rural Sites

Published: March 12, 2014
Author: Kostelny, K., Wessells, M., & Ondoro, K.

This research report is an output of the Interagency Learning Initiative on Community Based Child Protection Mechanisms and Child Protection Systems. The technical leadership for the Initiative is provided by the Columbia Group for Children in Adversity.

Summary and Integrated Analysis: A grounded view of community-based child protection mechanisms and their linkages with the wider child protection system in three rural and urban areas in Kenya

Published: April 2014
Author: Wessells, M., Kostelny, K., and Ondoro, K. For the Interagency Learning Initiative on Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms and Child Protection Systems

Summary and Integrated Analysis: A grounded view of community-based child protection mechanisms and their linkages with the wider child protection system in three rural and urban areas in Kenya

Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms in Kisii/Nyamira Area: A Rapid Ethnographic Study in Two Rural Sites in Kenya

Published: March 11, 2014
Author: Kostelny, K., Wessells, M., & Ondoro, K.

This research report is an output of the Interagency Learning Initiative on Community Based Child Protection Mechanisms and Child Protection Systems. The technical leadership for the Initiative is provided by the Columbia Group for Children in Adversity.

Executive Summary: Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms in Kisii/Nyamira Area: A Rapid Ethnographic Study in Two Rural Sites in Kenya

Published: March 4, 2014
Author: Kostelny, K., Wessells, M., & Ondoro, K.

In diverse contexts, community-based child protection mechanisms (CBCPMs) are front line efforts to protect children from exploitation, abuse, violence, and neglect and to promote children’s well-being.

A 2009 global, inter-agency review of the effectiveness of CBCPMs indicated that, among seven factors that influenced the effectiveness of CBCPMs, community ownership was the most important determinant of the CBCPM effectiveness and sustainability. However, most NGO facilitated CBCPMs achieved only low to moderate levels of community ownership, as there was a tendency to establish CBCPMs such as Child Welfare Committees as parallel structures that did not build upon existing community mechanisms.

The purpose of this research was to learn about community-based child protection processes and mechanisms in two mostly rural sites in the Kisii/Nyamira area of Kenya. The research is intended to complement and extend the learning from previous research by the Inter-Agency

Learning Initiative in two urban slums of Mombasa, Kenya and in two rural areas of Kilifi. To learn about existing community-based child protection processes and mechanisms, the research used an ethnographic approach in which national researchers who spoke Ekegusii lived and worked in the villages, making participant observations, conducting interviews and group discussions with diverse people, and engaging in activities with children.

In particular, the research sought to identify how local people (who were positioned differently according to age, gender, and socio-economic status) understand children and childhood, what they saw as the main harms or risks to children, what CBCPMs existed and how they were used, what protective factors enabled children’s positive coping and resilience, and whether and how the CBCPMs linked with elements of the formal, government led aspects of the child protection system.

Webinar presentation 28th Aug 2013 – Kenya, urban slums

Published: August 28th 2013
Author: Ken Ondoro, Kathleen Kostelny, Mike Wessells

Webinar presentation 28th Aug 2013 – Kenya, urban slums

Research Brief: Learning about children in urban slums

Published: 2013
Author: Interagency Learning Initiative on Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms and Child Protection Systems

A rapid ethnographic study in two urban slums in Mombasa, Kenya, of community-based child protection mechanisms and their links with the national child protection system.

Lessons learned: conducting research on community based child protection mechanisms

Published: 2013
Author: CPC Learning Network and the Interagency Learning Initiative

Lessons learned on conducting research drawn from a collective body of research undertaken by the CPC Learning Network and the Interagency Learning Initiative.

Journal of Social Science & Medicine 87 (2013) 185e193: Pathways from parental AIDS to child psychological, educational and sexual risk: developing an empirically-based theoretical model

Published: 2013
Author: Cluver, L, Orkin, M, Boyes, M, Sherr, L, Makhasi, D, Nikelo, J.

Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes.

This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associ- ated with children’s psychological distress, educational access and sexual health.

Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009e2011, from 6002 children aged 10e17 years in three provinces of South Africa using strati␣ed random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy.

Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational ac- cess, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model.

Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psy- chological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, signi␣cant indirect effects of AIDS- orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects.

In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact child outcomes through multiple, interlinked pathways. The interactive model developed in this study sug- gests key areas of focus for interventions with AIDS-affected children.

Community based child protection mechanisms amongst urban refugees in Kampala, Uganda: an ethnographic study

Published: 2013
Author: CPC Learning Network

This study looks at how people living in protracted refugee settings in Uganda protect their children.

Policy Brief: Pathways from parental AIDS to psychological, educational and HIV risks for children

Published: 2013
Author: Cluver, L, Orkin, M, Boyes, M, Sherr, L, Makhasi, D, Nikelo, J.

The Questions:
•    Evidence shows that parental AIDS-illness and death have severe negative impacts on children. But we need to understand why AIDS has these effects.
•    This study aims to identify these pathways, and thus identify important targets for interventions.
•    3 key outcomes are examined: psychological, HIV-infection risks and educational

Children And AIDS: Compendium of abstracts presented at the 17th ICASA

Published: December 2013
Author: UNICEF

Children And AIDS: Compendium of abstracts presented at the 17th ICASA

Full Report: Learning about Children in Urban Slums

Published: April, 2013
Author: Kostelny, K., Wessells, M., Chabeda-Barthe, J, & Ondoro, K

A rapid ethnographic study in two urban slums in Mombasa, Kenya, of community-based child protection mechanisms and their links with the national child protection system

Comparative analysis of community based child protection mechanisms supported by Plan in Asia – child friendly summary report

Published: 2012
Author: Plan International

This report provides a child-friendly summary of Plan’s comparative analysis of community based child protection mechanisms.

Research Brief: An Ethnographic Study of Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms and their Linkages with the National Child Protection System of Sierra Leone

Published: April 2012
Author: Inter-Agency Learning Initiative on Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms and Child Protection Systems

This document serves as a seven-page summary of the longer report included among these research documents, “An Ethnographic Study of Community-Based Child Protection Mechanisms and their Linkages with the National Child Protection System of Sierra Leone.”

Mapping community-based child protection mechanisms in Uganda

Published: January 2012
Author: Child Protection in Crisis Network

The goal of this research is to take a bottom-up approach in examining existing CBCPMs in Arua and Nebbi districts in Uganda. By understanding how communities currently define, prevent, and respond to child protection violations and how local systems connect (or do not connect) to formal protection systems, these mechanisms may then be supported, and enhanced, rather than ignored or undermined.

With appropriate support, CBCPMs may be able to increase coverage and efficacy and even improve the implementation of locally appropriate strategies.

What are we learning about protection children in the community?

Published: 2009
Author: Mike Wessells, lead consultant, on behalf of an Inter-Agency Working Group

This 2009 inter-agency studied examined 160 documents about working with community-based groups for child protection.  While finding that the evidence base concerning the child protection outcomes achieved by such work, the report identified sets of factors that seemed to contribute to more effective community-based work and outlined promising practices.

Qu’apprenons-nous sur la protection des enfants dans la communauté?

Published: 2009
Author: Mike Wessells on behalf of an Inter-Agency Reference Group

Cette synthèse exécutive résume en français les résultats d’une étude inter-agence des éléments recuillies sur les mécanismes de protection de l’enfance au sein de la communauté.

Executive Summary: What are we learning about protecting children in the community?

Published: 2009
Author: Mike Wessells, lead consultant, on behalf of an Inter-Agency Working Group

This 20-page executive summary presents an overview of the key findings from a 2009 inter-agency review of the evidence on community-based child protection mechanisms. The full report is also available in this research section.

A Common Responsibility: The role of community-based groups in protection children from sexual abuse and exploitation – a discussion paper

Published: 2008
Author: Sarah Lilley for Save the Children UK

This 2008 discussion paper shares Save the Children’s experience in working with community-based groups; the paper is an effort to stimulate dialogue by highlighting the successes and challenges of such work.

Community Action and the Test of Time: Learning From Community Experiences And Perceptions

Published: 2006
Author: Jill Donahue and Louis Mwewa

This 2006 publication, supported by a number of organizations working in consortium and produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development’s Displaced Children and Orphans Fund, uses case studies of mobilization and capacity building to for community groups working with vulnerable children in Malawi and Zambia.

Its key findings focus on building community ownership of child protection and welfare issues, sustainability issues, and considerations for reaching the most vulnerable children.